Showing posts with label EV Chin State. Show all posts
Showing posts with label EV Chin State. Show all posts


ခ်င္းဝိေသသတိုင္း စည္းမ်ဥ္း ဥပေဒ ၁၈၉၆
Posted By Salai Aung Ling

Introduction : The Chin Hills Regulation (Regulation IV) passed on August 13, 1896, had authorized the Superintendent or Deputy Commissioner (of the Lushai Hills) to order an undesirable outsider to leave the area and to tax the residents, permanent or temporary, clans and villages. On October 9, 1911, the Regulation was extended to the North Cachar Hills, the Garo Hills, the Khasi and Jaintya Hills (excluding the Shillong municipal and cantonement area where only the provision for taxation would apply), the Naga Hills and Mikir Hills

(1) This Regulation may be called the Chin Hills Regulation, 1896.
(2)It shall come into force on such date as the Local Government may, by notification in the Burma Gazette appoint.
(3) The Section and Section 3 shall extend to the whole of the Chin Hills. The rest of this Regulation shall extend only to such tracts in the Chin Hills as the Local Government, with the previous sanction of the Governor General in Council, may by notification in the Burma Gazette, direct.
(1) In this Regulation, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context the expression – “Superintendent” includes any officer whom the Local Government may invest with the powers of a Superintendent under this Regulation.
(2) “Assistant Superintendent” includes any officer whom the Local Government may invest with the powers of an Assistant Superintendent under this Regulation.
(3)“Chins” includes (a) Lushais, (b) Kukis, (c) Burman domiciled in the Chin Hills; and (d) any person who had adopted the customs and language of the Chins and are habitually resident in the Chin Hills;
(4) “Clan” means any sub-division or section of Chins, and includes a group of clans.
(5)“Villages” includes –
(a) a village – community.
(b) village lands,
(c) rivers passing through or by village land; and
(d) a group of villages; and
(6) “Headman” means the chief or head of any clan or village inhabited by Chins, and includes a council of chiefs or elders.
(1) This Regulation and the enactment in the schedule, to the extent and with the modifications there in set forth, shall be deemed to be the only enactment which apply to any tract in the Chin Hills to which Section 2 and Section 4 to 41 (both inclusive) may be extended by a notification under Section 1, sub-section (3).
(2) No other enactment shall be deemed to apply to Chins in the Chin Hills:
Provided that the Local Government, (subject to the control) of the Governor General in Council, may by notification in the Burma Gazette, declare any other enactment to be applicable wholly or to the extent or with the modification which may be set forth in the notification.
(1) so far as regards persons other than Chins, the law in force in the Chin Hills shall subject to the provision of sub-section (4) and (5), be the law for the time being in force in Upper Burma exclusive of the town of Mandalay :
(2)For the purposes of any enactment in force in the Chin Hills in persuance of the provisions of sub-section (1), the Superintendent shall be deemed to be the Deputy Commissioner or the District Magistrate and Collector, and an Assistant Superintendent and Assistant Commissioner in charge of a sub-division or an Assistant Collector of the first class, as the case may be.
(3)The Local Government shall exercise the powers of the Financial Commissioner and of a commissioner under any such enactment as aforesaid.
(4) This section and section 9, 16, 22, 23, 33 and 34 shall apply to person within the Chin Hills.
(5)Section 12 shall apply to all parties to a suit or other proceeding of a civil nature in which any of the parties in a Chin.
(1) Subject to any general or special orders of the Local Government the Superintendent may appoint and remove any headman, and may define the local limits of his jurisdiction and declare what clan, or village, or both shall be subject to him.
(2) Where a headman is appointed for a group of villages or clans, the Superintendent may declare the extent to, and the manner in, which the headman of the villages or clans composing such group shall be subordinate to the headman of the group.
(3) In making a declaration under this section the Superintendent shall be guided as far as practicable by local custom.
(1) Every headman shall within the local limits of his jurisdiction have general control, according to local custom, over the clan, or village, or both , declared subject to him.
2) He may levy from such clan or village any customary dues and may impose on them such punishments as are authorised by local custom:
Provided that no barbarous, excessive or unusual punishment shall be imposed.
(3) He shall be bound to keep the peace within the tract under his general control; to comply with all lawful orders, received from the Superintendent or Assistant Superintendent; and to furnish on the requisition of the Superintendent or an Assistant Superintendent, on receipt of payment at rates to be fixed by the Superintendent, supplies of food or labour required by any public servant.
(1) A headman may try, according to local custom, any person subject to his general control who may be charged with any offence other than and offence punishable under section 121 to 130, section 302 to 308, section 341 to 348, section 363 to 440 (all inclusive) of the Indian Penal Code or with abetment of, or attempt to commit, any of these offences, and may punish with fine in money or goods any person found guilty by him of any such offence as aforesaid.
(2) Nothing in the Indian Penal Code or in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1882, shall apply to any proceedings of a headman acting in exercise of the powers conferred by this section.
A headman may try and decide according to local custom any dispute of a civil nature between persons subject to his general control, and may enforce his decision in accordance with such custom.
(1) The Chin Hills shall constitute a sessions division and a district for criminal, civil, revenue and general purposes, and the Superintendent shall be the Sessions Judge.
(2) As Sessions Judge the Superintendent may take cognizance of any offence as a court of original jurisdiction without the accused being committed to him by a magistrate for trial, and, when so taking cognizance shall follow the procedure prescribed by the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1882, for the trial of warrant cases by Magistrate.
For the purpose of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1882, the Local Government shall exercise the powers of a High Court.
The Local Government may, by notification in the Burma Gazette, invest any Assistant Superintendent with all or any of the powers of a Superintendent under this Regulation, and define the local limits of his jurisdiction.

(1) The Superintendent and every Assistant Superintendents exercising jurisdiction within the Chin Hills may try any suit or other proceeding of a civil nature between parties, any one of whom is a Chin, according to such procedure as the Local Government may, by notification in the Burma Gazette prescribed; and
(2) In the trial of any such suit or proceeding, may exercise all or any of the powers which he might exercise in a suit or proceeding in which none of the parties is a Chin, and
(3) In deciding any such suit or proceeding shall have regard to local custom and to justice, equity and good conscience.
The Superintendent may withdraw any civil or criminal case pending before a headman or an Assistant Superintendent and may other try if himself or refer it for trial to an Assistant Superintendent.
(1) Subject to the control of the Local Government, the Superintendent may take hostages from, or impose fines in money or goods on any clan or village or any part thereof, if after enquiry he find that any of the persons belonging to such clan or village have –
(a) colluded with, or harbored, or failed to take reasonable means to prevent the escape of, any person accused of, or under sentence of imprisonment for, an offence;
(b) suppressed or combine to suppressed evidence in any criminal case;
(c) failed or neglected to restore stolen property tracked to their village or to take on the track beyond the limits of their village;
(d) done any act hostile or unfriendly to the Government;
(e) disobeyed the lawful orders of the Superintendent or an Assistant Superintendent;
(f) taken patria or abetted an attack on traders or other travelers, or the levy of, or attempt to levy unauthorized dues or tolls; or
(g) engaged in fighting with any other clan or village.
(2) The Superintendent may order the whole or any part of fine imposed under this section to be given as compensation to any person to whom damage or injury has been caused, directly or indirectly, by the act in respect of which the fine is imposed.
(3) When in pursuance of an order passed under this section a person has received compensation for injury out of the proceeds of a fine, all right of such person to compensation based on the same injury shall be barred.
When within the area occupied by any clan or village a person is dangerously or fatally wounded by unlawful attack, or the body of a person reasonably believed to have been unlawfully killed is found, the members of such clan or village shall be deemed to have committed an offence under the last foregoing section unless they can show that –
(a) had not any opportunity of preventing the offence or arresting the offence; or
(b) had used all reasonable means to bring the offender to justice.
In the event of any clan or village acting in a manner hostile or unfriendly to the Government, the Superintendent may subject to the control of the Local Government, detain all or any members of such clan or village, deport them from the Chin Hills for life or for any shorted term, detain or confiscate their property, debar them from access into territory outside the Chin Hills and prohibit all or any other persons from entering the area occupied by such clan or village.
Every Headman who abused any of the power conferred upon him by this Regulation, or neglect to obey any reasonable order of the Superintendent, shall be liable by order of the Superintendent to pay a fine not exceeding fifty rupees, or to be suspended or dismissed from office.
When the Superintendent is satisfied that a dispute likely to cause a feud, breach of the peace or any offence affecting the human body or against property exists, he may enquire into the dispute and pass such order as he may thick fit, having regard to local custom and to justice, equity and good conscience.
No new village shall be formed without the consent of the Superintendent, who may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, prohibit the formation thereof.
Whenever it seems to the Superintendent to be expedient on military or other grounds, he may, by order in writing, direct the removal of any village to any other site, and with the sanction of the Local Government, may award to the inhabitants thereof such compensation for any loss which may have been occasioned to them by such removal as in his opinion, shall be just.
(1) When any person is known or believed to have a feud, or has occasioned any cause of quarrel likely to lead to bloodshed, dacoity or robbery, the Superintendent may require such person to reside beyond the limits of the Chin Hills or within those limits at such place as the Superintendent may deem desirable.
(2) No order requiring a person to reside beyond the limits of the Chin Hills shall be made without the previous sanction of the Local Government.
When the Superintendent is satisfied that the presence of any person (not being a public servant or a Chin) is injurious to the peace or god administration of the Chin Hills, he may, for reason to be recorded in writing, order such person to leave the Chin Hills within a given time.
Whenever contravenes the provisions of section 19, or disobeys an order under section 20 or a requisition under section 21, or an order under section 22, may, on conviction by a Magistrate, be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.
When the Superintendent is of opinion that it is necessary for the purpose of the preventing culpable homicide (whether a mounting to murder or not), grievous hurt, dacoity or robbery to require any person to execute a bond, for his good behaviour, he may order such person to execute a bond with or without sureties, for his good behaviour during such period not exceeding three years as the Superintendent may fix.
When a feud or other cause of quarrel likely to lead bloodshed or violence exists, or is, in the opinion of the Superintendent likely to arise between two clans, villages or families of Chins, the Superintendent may order all or any of the persons belonging to such clans, villages or families, or of either of such clans, villages or families, to execute a bound, with or without sureties, for their good behaviour during such period not exceeding three years as he may fix.
When an Assistant Superintendent duly authorised under Section 11 passes an order section 24 or section 25, he shall at once submit a report of his proceedings to the Superintendent.
(1) The commission or attempted commission, or the abetment by a person who has executed a bond for his good behaviour under section 24, of any offence affecting the human body or against property shall be deemed to be a breach of such bond.
(2) If, while a bond executed under section 25 is in force, the life of any person belonging to any clan, village or family concerned is unlawfully taken or attempted to be taken, or the property of any such person is unlawfully taken or attempted to be taken, by or with the abetment of any person or persons belonging to the other clan, village or family, and of their sureties (if any) to be forfeited.
(1) If any person ordered to execute a bond for his good behaviour under section 24 or section 25 does not give the security required on or before the date on which the period for which the security to be given begins, he shall be committed to prison, or, if he is already in prison, be detained there until such period expires, or until within such period he gives the security to the officer who made the order requiring it, or to the officer in charge of the jail in which he is detained, in which case he shall be forthwith discharged from prison.
Imprisonment for failure to give security under section 24, or section 25 may be rigorous or simple as the officer requiring the security directs in each case.
When any person has suffered imprisonment for three years for failure to give security for his good behaviour under section 24 or section 25 he shall be released and shall not again be required to give security unless a fresh order is passed in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation.
(1) Any person who has, under the provisions of section 24 or section 25, given security, or been imprisoned for failure to give security, may be brought before the Superintendent if, on the expiry of the period for which security was required to be given, the Superintendent so directs.
(2)When the Superintendent thinks if necessary, for the purpose of preventing the commission of any offence affecting the human body or against property, to require security for a further period form any person so brought before him, he shall record a proceeding to that effect.
(3)The proceeding may be founded on the facts on which the original order to give security was founded, and it shall not be necessary to prove any fresh facts to justify an order to give security for a further period; under this section and such subsequent order, if passed, shall have the same effect be enforced in the same manner as an order to give security under section 24 or section 25.
(4) Not withstanding anything in this section, no person shall suffer for failure to give security under this chapter, imprisonment for more than six years or without the sanction of the Local Government, for more than three years.
(1) The Superintendent may fix the number of firearms and the quantity and description of ammunition which may be possessed by any clan or village, and may issue licenses, either to such clan or village collectively, or to any of the persons belonging there to individually to possess the firearms and ammunitions specified in the licenses.
(2) All firearms for which licenses have been issued shall be stamped and entered in a register.
(3) The Superintendent may grant a license to any clan or village for the manufacture of gun powder.
(4) Any person who, not being licensed or not belonging to any clan or village licensed in that behalf, possessed any firearms or ammunition, or who manufactures gun powder, shall be punished, on conviction by a Magistrate, with imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
(5) With the previous sanction of the Local Government, the Superintendent may direct that the foregoing sub-section shall not apply to any tract or part of the Chin Hills, and may with the like sanction cancel any direction so made.
(6) The Superintendent may, by order in writing, prohibit all or any of the persons belonging to any clan or village from carrying das, spears, and bows and arrows, or any of those weapons, in any tract, to be defined in the order, if he is of opinion that such prohibition is necessary to the peace of such tract. Such order shall specify the length of time during which it shall remain in force.
(7) Whoever disobeys a prohibition under sub-section (6) shall, on conviction by a Magistrate, be punished with imprisonment which may extend to six months, or with fine, or with both.
No prosecution under the Upper Burma Forest Regulation, 1887, or any rule there under, under be instituted against any Chin except with the sanction in writing of the Superintendent.
Whoever imports, cultivates, manufactures, possesses, sells or exports opium, ganja, bhang, or charas in the Chin Hills shall be punished, on conviction by a Magistrate, with imprisonment which may extend to one y ear, or with fine, or with both.
Whoever sells foreign fermented liquor or spirit to any Chin shall be punished on conviction by a Magistrate, with imprisonment which may extend to three months, or fine, or with both.


Taxes shall be levied on all clans and villages at such rates and in such manner as the Local Government may prescribe.
An order for the payment of any fine or tax or for the delivery of any property, or for the performance of any act may be enforced –
(1) by the seizure of any movable property or of any standing crops of the person against whom such order is made, or, when the order is made against a clan or village or family of Chins, of any person belonging there to, or
(2) with the sanction of the Superintendent or of an Assistant Superintendent, by the simple imprisonment, for a tern not exceeding one year, of the person against whom such order is made.

No appeal shall lie against any order passed by a headman or by an officer acting under this Regulation.
(1) All Headmen and all officers in the Chin Hills shall be sub-ordinate to the Superintendent, who may revise any order passed by any such headman or officers, including an Assistant Superintendent specially empowered under section 11.
The Local Government may revise any order passed under this Regulation.
Subject to the control of the Governor General in Council, the Local Government may make rules consistent with this Regulation –
(a) to regulate the procedure to be observed by the officers acting under this Regulation;
(b) to prescribe the use of such forms, the submission of such reports and statements and the maintenance of such records and registers as it may think necessary; and
(c) generally, to carry into effect the purpose of this Regulations.
Except as provided in this Regulation, a decision passed act done or order made under this Regulation shall not be called in question in any Civil or Criminal Court.
(1) The Local Government may, by notification in the Burma Gazette, delegate to the Commissioner of any Division in Upper Burma all or any of the power conferred upon the Local Government by this Regulation, except the powers conferred by this section and by sections 1, 3, 5.11, 12, 31, 35 and 39, and may, from time to time by a like notification, rescind or vary any such notification.
(2)When all or any of the powers of the Local Government have been delegated to the Commissioner of the division, the Local Government may revise any order passed by such Commissioner except an order passed under Section 10.

Residents abandon villages in Tedim tsp after landslides

People in at least five villages in Tedim township, Chin State have deserted their places, severely affected by landslides.
All Kahngen villagers, 127 people of 40 households, arrived in Tedim on foot last Friday after having abandoned their houses.
Paupi, from Tedim, said that they were taking shelter in a Baptist church building.
"We received news that all residents in Vongmual and Tuisau villages are also arriving here soon as their places are no longer safe," said Paupi, a Tedim community leader.
He said that Laibung villagers were moving to Akluai village and that Tuivial residents would find a new place nearby to resettle.
Five villagers from Kahngen, about 18 miles away from Tedim, are being taken to the Tedim hospital as they suffer from diarrhoea.
Paupi told the Chinland Guardian that they had not received any humanitarian assistance from outside the town, adding: "As we are running out of food supplies, we are in urgent need of support." src: Chinland Guardian
In Hakha township, residents in at least two villages, Khuabe and Beutu, had abandoned their places since the beginning of this month.#

Pa Mung and Chinland Guardian interview about Tonzang disaster

Food shortages feared in Tonzang Township: Interview with Mung

10 August 2015: Tonzang is one of the nine townships in Chin State seriously affected by landslides and flash floods caused by recent heavy rains. However, the humanitarian situation in the State’s western part still remains under-reported because of limited communication facilities and road destruction.
Mung, a Tonzang resident and leading community member who has been actively involved in helping the victims, talked with the Chinland Guardian about updates on the ground.
Chinland Guardian: We have not heard much about the situation in Tonzang township. Tell us more about it. 
Mung: Tonzang is affected by flash floods which swept away many bridges, including the major one over Manipur river. Therefore, Tonzang will be isolated until temporary bridges are constructed. The estimated time to restore transportation to Tonzang is one month. People started buying basic commodities soon after they had heard about the destruction of bridges. So, rice and fuel have been out of stock. Consequently, low income families are most affected as they cannot afford to purchase in large quantities.

The main water pipe to the town was also destroyed by landslides and rain water has become the primary water source.
Old Nakzang village was badly hit. It lost 24 out of 29 houses in the village to flash floods. All paddy fields were destroyed and covered by sand and rock. It will not be possible for the villagers to use their paddy fields again. The majority of the village, including children, has moved to Lungtak village for shelter and food. They will need to find another location to build a new village. About 120 people are in urgent need of drinking water, shelter and food. Local donors are reaching them but only when the stream can be traversed.
New Nakzang village lost five houses and paddy fields to flash floods. Children will not be able to go to school until a new bridge is constructed as the school is situated on the other side of Manipur river. They are also in urgent need of drinking water.
Khamzang village and Takzang village will have to be relocated because of the landslides. The villagers are currently staying at the nearby villages of Lungtak, Phaitu and Salzang for shelter and food.
Chinland Guardian: We are aware that it is not easy to get accurate data and information because of communication problems. But can you update us on the amount of damage and the number of people affected as far as you can? 
Mung: At least 100 households are affected and nearly 500 people are displaced in four villages. According to the Tonzang Township General Administration Department, flash floods affected 28 houses, 90 households and 594 people, and destroyed 20 bridges, 16 roads (accessible by car and bike) and 1,003.30 acres of paddy fields; and landslides damaged 62 houses.

Chinland Guardian: How are the victims taken care of? What about women and children? And do they receive any assistance? 
Mungt: Affected people are generally given temporary shelter at school and church buildings. No other site arranged for rescue camps has been found.

Food items and drinking water have been supplied to affected villages by various local donors through individual contribution. However, the minimum requirements are not met.
Children are still going to schools in nearby villages where they are given shelter.
Chinland Guardian: Have you received any humanitarian assistance from the authorities or any organizations? 
Mung: Ar Yone Oo, a non-governmental social development organization, provided rice, oil and chickpeas for affected villages. It is so far the most active organization that has taken immediate action toward helping the victims.

Donated rice from Ar Yone Oo and religious organizations are distributed in town under the management of the General Administration Department. 
People will run out of food and drinking water in a few days if the main roads and bridges are not reconstructed soon.
Chinland Guardian: So, people are running out of basic needs? 
Mung: Yes, rice cannot be purchased in town and it is heard that donors are trying to send rice bags to Tonzang. However, it still depends on the road situation – in order to get humanitarian aid to Tonzang.

Chinland Guardian: What are the urgent needs of the people? 
Mung: 1. Rice 2. Food items 3. Aqua tab, water purification substances and sanitation aids 4. Latrine 5. First Aid kits and essential medical supplies, and 6. Shelter support

Chinland Guardian: What would you suggest I do if I want to make donations or help victims in Tonzang?
Mung: The first priority is food items, water and sanitation supports. You should contact local civil society organizations and Ar Yone Oo. The second is construction materials for affected villages. 

For giving any help or support, please contact the following:
  1. Sister Thawn Niang, Roman Catholic Church in Tonzang on 0947173021, 0973203137
  2. Khup Bawi, Ar Yone Oo, on 0949581841
  3. Tonzang Township General Administration Department on 0947172040
Chinland Guardian: Share with us the overall situation. 
Mung: Overall, we might say that Tonzang is less damaged than any other townships in Chin State. But communication and transportation are significantly more difficult. Limited communication channels have left the township mute until now. Cell phones used are MPT 450 MHz, through which there can be no internet access. There are no public internet shops. And as yet, there is no media run by local groups or associations.

Soon after the heavy monsoon rain, known as cyclone ‘Komen’, had hit Chin State, landslides and flash floods swept away major transportation routes including bridges, hence blocking the roads to Tonzang. There will be shortages of food and drinking water in a few days if there is no humanitarian aid or support from inside and outside Myanmar. We need you and Tonzang needs your support.#

Ravaged Roads Cut Off Supplies in Remote Chin State

ood is in short supply in much of northwestern Burma’s Chin State, where two main cities have been cut off by landslides caused by heavy monsoon rain in recent weeks.
Some supplies have reached the capital, Hakha, and Falam in the northernmost reaches of the state, aid workers said, but the deliveries dropped in by military helicopters are not sufficient for the sheer number of people displaced or trapped by storms.
“Around six choppers have come here,” said Pa Kap, who leads the Rone Taug rescue team in Hakha. “the government is providing rice and other supplies for relief camps, but it isn’t enough. The entire town is trapped and short of food—we need much more.”
The township of roughly 469,000 had been cut off by a July 29 landslide on the Union Highway, which links the remote state with central Burma. The government and independent donors have been sending intermittent relief shipments, but the deliveries are few and far between.
Adding to a general food shortage caused by transport disruptions, some 6,600 people have been moved to emergency shelters because of flooding and related dangers, local aid workers said. Pa Kap estimated that each of the township’s 13 emergency relief camps needed 70 to 100 sacks of rice per day.
“It is impossible to feed the entire town with a single helicopter [full of food],” he said.
Those further north in Falam are experiencing similar shortages as the Kale-Falam road is currently impassable due to landslides and other storm debris. Resident Tin Nan told The Irrawaddy that only small cars are able to make the journey. As trucks are unable to make deliveries, he said, “shops have nothing to sell.”
The shortages are far reaching, as landslides have also blocked all roads linking the town to five nearby villages, leaving thousands of people struggling for basic goods. Communication is scarce in the mountainous zone, though reports have surfaced of entire villages being washed away by flash flooding. According to the local chapter of the Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP), as many as 50 homes were destroyed in Tonzang Township’s Narl Zan village, sending families fleeing for refuge. Similar stories have emerged from Tedim Township, where local media has reported that scores of homes were swept away in Kaking and Laibone villages.
Transport in and out of the state—Burma’s poorest—is now all but impossible by land, while roads linking districts within the state have also become mostly useless after severe damage to several key bridges.
Bam Min Htan, chairman of the Tonzang chapter of the USDP, told The Irrawaddy that car travel was no longer possible because of erosion on the bridge linking his township to Tedim. Relief is coming elsewhere, however, as the state government has already begun clearing off the Hakha-Falam-Kale road with bulldozers to reopen access to the state’s central trading hub.
Ko Paung, joint secretary of the USDP in Chin State, said repairing the road “might need a lot of efforts as the dangers are serious,” but the job should be done within a week. Until then, he said, “we have to eat sparingly.”
Last Friday, Chin State, Arakan State, Magwe Division and Sagaing Division were declared disaster zones by the government after Cyclone Komen made landfall in neighboring Bangladesh, dropping torrential rain on some of Burma’s poorest and already inundated regions.
Figures from the state-run Global New Light of Myanmar on Tuesday said the nationwide flooding had damaged more than 426,000 acres of farmland and destroyed some 56,000 more. A total of 1,387 schools have been temporarily shuttered.
Some 217,000 people were directly affected by the crisis, which is said to be the worst flooding the country has seen in decades. At least 46 flood-related deaths have been reported by the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement as of late Tuesday, though the toll is expected to rise.
Area-specific death tolls are not yet available, but aid workers in Chin State said they were aware of one death in Hakha and another in Falam Township’s Tamon village. More than 600 homes have been damaged, mostly by landslides, which remain an enormous risk in the days and weeks to come.
Vice President Nyan Tun reportedly visited the capital on Aug. 2, promising that food and other supplies would be delivered in a timely manner. The following day, several Burmese businessmen and celebrities brought food aid to the town. Among the high-profile donors were Ayayarwady Bank chairman Zaw Zaw; Shwe Thanlwin Media chairman Kyaw Win; Ayeyar Hintha chairman Zaw Win Shein; Aung Myin Thu chairman Hla Myo; Lu Min of the Myanmar Motion Picture Association; actor Wai Lu Kyaw and singer Sai Si Twan Khen.

Myanmar: Food transporters to Kahgen victims have arrived back

Myanmar: Food transporters to Kahgen victims have arrived back today

Tedim, Chin State: Food Transporters to Kahngen victims have arrived back safely to Tedim town today. In this adventuring food transportation trip, the President and Vice President of ZYA (Zomi Youth Association) could led the team. More than 20 went there.

Based on their findings, there is an urgent need of drinking water, paving emergency motorbike lane between Haupi and Kahgen village to send food to them.
The main heartbreaking situation of the victims is that they have food for only one week more. The major problem to transport food to there is that it takes two days in order to reach the victims since there is no proper motorbike lane.
This is only one situation of a village in Tedim Township, Chin State. There are many other villages who face the same problem of shortage of food, drinking water, loss of house and property.

To date, according to ZYA, there are about 1139 victims altogether in Tedim Township who are crying for food and drinking water urgently.
# Sharing this news is greatly appreciated #

Houses destroyed in Rezua and Zotung areas

02 August 2015 -- Landslides destroyed more than 20 buildings and forced residents to evacuate at least 16 houses in Rezua and Zotung areas of Chin State.
The damage comprised six houses in Rezua, six in Siatlai, four in Lotaw, and five in Lungngo villages.

Khamh B Lian said: "Roads are completely lost and communication has been cut off. We believe that other villages are also affected by this natural disaster."

He said that paddy fields, estimated to be almost 60 acres, had been swept away by floods.

Landslides hit Chin State (Many Different Towns)

28 July 2015 -- Heavy rains have caused landslides in Chin State and Sagaing Region, destroying houses and roads.
In Hakha, at least five buildings were destroyed by landslides and families were urged to evacuate from their houses to safer places.

"We have had heavy rains for a few days. Actually, it has been raining continuously since Saturday," Nu Sui, a Hakha resident, told the Chinland Guardian.

"It is not only the landslides but also flash floods that have brought houses to destruction and displaced many families," said Sui.

Some state and boarding schools are being closed in the capital as the rains continue, according to sources from Hakha.

Private cars and several buses have been stranded on both the Hakha-Mandalay and Hakha-Kalay roads by landslides.

Cer, a resident in Hakha, said that the road blockade had made supplies of vegetables and meat short in the town.

25 July, Paletwa Township
In Sami, about 30 houses have been flooded as the water level of Pui river rises following heavy rains.
The Na-Ta-La school is also inundated (update on 29 July).

25 July, Matupi Township
A heavy landslide taking place in Khuabawi ward, Matupi town has put a house, belonging to Boi Luep, in danger.

27 July, Falam Township
A road leading to the Basic Education Primary School No. 3 in Falam has been destroyed around 10am by landslides, following heavy rains.

29 July, Tedim Township
Houses are swept away by landslides in Suangzang village, Tedim Township.

No action to help victims affected by landslides in Matupi

27 July 2015 -- Residents in Matupi town, Chin State have criticized the authorities for taking no action to help victims affected by landslides.
Salai TH, who asks not to be named, said that a house belonging to Boi Luep had been in danger of collapsing because of the landslide, and that officials from government departments had come and gone back without doing anything to help deal with the situation.
"U Maung Maung, a sergeant from the Matupi Police Force, visited the site on Sunday but he just left without even saying anything to the locals," he said.
"Today, members of the fire brigade department came in the morning. They also left without doing anything," Salai TH said.
He added that no officials from the town and ward general administration offices had been seen on the scene.
Meanwhile, landslides and flash floods have destroyed houses and roads in other parts of Chin State.

30 houses flooded in Sami, Chin State

26 July 2015 -- Heavy rains caused a high rise in the water level of the river Pui on Saturday night, flooding 30 houses in Sami town, Paletwa township, Chin State.
Ai Maung Hla, a youth leader in Sami, said that it had started raining from around midnight until daybreak the following day.
"Some houses were afloat while others were carried away by a strong current. As it happened in the middle of the night, people were not able to keep many of their belongings safe," he added.
According to the Khumi Media Group, 20 households from Ward No. 1 and another 10 from Ward No. 2 were inundated.
Hla said that families hit by the flood were temporarily staying at the houses of relatives and neighbours.
"We, the youth group, are trying to get detailed data about the victims and their needs," Hla said.
As of today, the affected villagers have not received any assistance.

Civilians bear brunt of conflict in Paletwa, Chin State

The Chin Human Rights Organization (CHRO) today condemned both the Arakan Army (AA) and the Myanmar Army for human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law, in the context of recent outbreaks of conflict between the two sides in Paletwa, southern Chin State in a media release dated 15 June.

CHRO urged the authorities to cooperate with UN agencies and the international community to provide much-needed humanitarian assistance to more than 350 Khumi Chin internally-displaced persons (IDPs), who will run out of food supplies before the end of this month.

CHRO’s briefing describes how the community of Khumi Chin indigenous people were forced to flee when their village of Pyin So,where there is a Myanmar Army military outpost, came under direct attack by the Arakan Army at the end of March.

Around 6pm on 28 March, about 40 armed soldiers from non-ceasefire ethnic armed group the Arakan Army approached the village. On their way to the village, they detained 8Khumi Chin men, two of whom managed to escape and were able to warn the villagers of the impending attack. The eight Myanmar Army soldiers stationed there left their outpost and took up positions around the village. Fighting broke out late that night, and again early the next morning, and Myanmar Army Captain Kyaw Htet Aung was killed. After the Arakan Army effectively seized control of the village, they ordered the Pyin So villagers to dig a grave and bury the body of the Captain. Another ten men were forcibly taken by the Arakan Army to porter their loads for them to the border with Bangladesh.

The primary school in the village was destroyed in the fighting, as well as the schoolteacher’s hostel and two other homes. The roofs were heavily damaged and the properties riddled with bullet holes. Both the Myanmar Army and the Arakan Army have allegedly laid landmines around Pyin So village.

“This is yet another case where ordinary civilians, this time Khumi Chin indigenous people, bear the brunt of armed conflict in Myanmar and suffer human rights violations,” said Rachel Fleming, CHRO’s Advocacy Director. “The long-standing pattern of abuses hasn’t stopped; in fact we see it escalating in the Paletwa area.”
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Two Police Officers Arrested for Rape of Teenager in Chin State

Local authorities have arrested and charged two police officers from Chin State’s Tonzang Township over allegations of the rape of a 16-year-old girl on the evening of Apr. 11.
The officers, both lance corporals from the small town of 20,000 people, are now in detention at the Tonzang Police Station after a complaint filed by the victim’s father.
“Tough penalties will be given to them and we’ll also take actions against their supervisors,” Col. Myint Lwin, the Chin State police chief, told The Irrawaddy. “We are working to bring them to trial at the district court as quickly as possible. The two have confessed.”
According to Tonzang locals, the accused are close friends of the girl’s family. The pair will be punished by the Falam District Court and the Myanmar Police Force for the crime, according to Myint Lwin.
“We’ll punish them for breaching the police code of conduct. Meanwhile, the district court will also hand down penalties to them for the rape under civilian law,” he said.

Power for the Elite (Among Chins)

Following article was compiled from the “Conversion of the Chin in Burma: The Creation of an Elite” by Bianca Son (Mang Khan Cing) Ph.d, daughter of the late Dr. Vumson Suantak, her thesis paper for Master of Science at International School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Department of Contemporary Asian Studies, Universiteit van Amsterdam (August 2007).
The previous chapter demonstrated a carefully constructed effort of the Hakha to separate themselves first from the Burman and then from other Zomi, resulting in a Hakha elite.  This section examines how this elite has used Christianity to gain political power within Burma, specifically by creating a new Christian community, the Hakha have vied for leadership of the whole of the Chin.  They have further parlayed their Christianity to gain attention and power on the world stage.
 According to Weber (in Gerth and Mills 1947) and his later followers, conversion is simply a means to gain power over and/or within a community, whether it is political or economic.  Weber’s notion of the prophet’s power and the fact that there is potential political gain by using religion is demonstrated in the Chin case as well.  That is, many of the political leaders inside as well as outside the Chin Hills are trained theologians.
 Weber argued some sort of interdenominational conflict must exist for conversion to take place.  Hefner quotes Weber, “[there must exist] a struggle between various competing groups and prophecies for the control of the community” (Weber in Hefner 1993:11).  In this way, Weber argued that competing doctrines are necessary and that individuals and groups’ leadership struggle for control and power must exist within the community.  In this way, then, the attributes necessary for leadership in any given community are redefined.
 Further, Weber believed that there are other influences as well.  He strongly believed that a certain amount of tension and complex interplay of circumstances and ideals must exist in order to come to a rationalized decision regarding conversion.  He argued that rationalization is not simply a cost/benefit issue for the potential convert, but that religious leaders such as priests also have an agenda, to maintain power and status privileges by “their commitment to the abstract truth of religious ideals” (Hefner 1993:11, Gerth and Mills 1947).
 As mentioned previously, Burman Buddhists persecuted converts early in the missions.  Before the Buddhists objected however, many Chin suffered persecution from other, non-converted Chin.  Laura Carson reports about a convert Thang Tsin who converted and was baptised by Rev. Carson in 1906 (Sakhong 2000).  When announcing that he had become a Christian was beaten by the village chief. Thang Tsin did not waiver in his new belief system, henceforth his house, his farm and even his wife were taken from him by the village chief.  Thang Tsin, according to Laura Carson remained a Christian.  She writes, “His case was taken up to the government by the missionaries, and the chief who ordered him beaten was fined and Thang’s property, liberty and wife were restored” (in Sakhong 2000).  Obviously, new leadership orders was evolving, where the chief had lost much of his power and the Christians were not only able to overturn his ruling, but were able to punish the chief.
 A. Prophet’s Power
In a traditional religion, elders are often leaders.  More often than not, men are leaders.  With conversion, however, the earliest converted or the most pious and devout can become leaders.  Further, strangers bringing the new religion, although of different ethnicity, nationality and race may suddenly have the power to lead a community through the new doctrine.  In any event, eventually, the belief system, along with the leadership will be institutionalized religious ideals.
 Another important factor in conversion, according to Weber (in Gerth and Mills 1947), is the one who brings the new religion to a community.  Weber discussed, extensively, the notion of the prophet whose voice is one of anti-traditionalism.  This prophet, who must also be charismatic, convinces the community that he has the ultimate world vision and demands immediate and complete conformity of the community to his set of ideal truths.  He becomes the voice of the redemptive social world, has Heilbesitz [1]or the prophet’s power.  This is certainly true in the case of the Chin who, after more than a century, still herald the first missionaries that came to the Chin Hills.  In fact, the Chin also herald their own indiginized ministers in high esteem.  One such minister was Hau Lian Kham.  Several biographies have been written about his life.[2]  In an article, Legacy of Hau Lian Kham (1944-1995): A Revivalist, Equipper, and Transformer for the Zomi-Chin People of Myanmar published in the Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies, Chin Khua Khai writes, “Kham arose as a giant of faith” (Khai 2001:100).  Khai continues by giving a brief account of Kham’s life and his Christian work among the Chin.  Khai also writes that Kham was successful because he was able to take lessons from the Bible and put it into the context of the Chin Hills, i.e. Indiginization.  Finally, Khai closes the article by writing, “He could say as Paul did, ‘I have fought a good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith’ (2 Tim 4:6 NIV)” (Khai 2001:107).  Clearly Hau Lian Kham was such a modern day prophet in the Chin community.  He brought Christian Renewal to the Chin Hills in the 1970s.  Before him, there were the American missionaries.  While in the Chin Hills, the missionaries indiginized local converts to teach and preach the Bible.  In this way, the prophet power moved from western Christians to locals.
 1. The First Convert
Being the first converts for the Hakha is important in that they are able to yield that prophet’s power.  Also, it creates legitimacy in the religious as well as the political realm.  For example, as I explained earlier, Sakhong claims that the Tedim went to Europe instead of defending their homeland, the Chin Hills.  Further, according to Sakhong they were converted when they saw European Christians in Europe whereas the Hakha converted in the Chin Hills and also stayed to defend their homeland.  This strongly implies that the Hakha are not only more pious in that they quickly recognized that Christianity is the one true religion, they are also more loyal demonstrated by the fact that they rejected going abroad and refused to take orders from the British.
 The Hakha claim to be the first converts and thus were the center of Christian activity in the Chin Hills.  In Hakha the Chin Hills Baptist Association was formed and according to Sakhong (2000), they invited the “Zomi tribe of the Tedim area” whom they historically mistrusted.  But because the Hakha had become devout Christians, they were able to share their Christian faith with the Tedim.  To support this change, Sakhong quotes Johnson, “The Hakas were used to calling the Sizang and Kamhau by the appellation ‘Thaute’, a derogatory term, and could not understand how Christians could accept these Thaute as brothers. The superstition that the Teddim are people possessed the power of the evil eye was still strong, and so the Haka tended to shun them” (Sakhong 2000:227).[3]  Truly he paints a picture of the Hakha as being simply “better” people than the Tedim. They are better because they are more pious, have stronger values and are kinder in that they invited the Tedim whom they did not trust to join them in their church.
 2. The Capital of Conversion
Sakhong, a Hakha himself, refers to Hakha dialect as “the Chin language” in Chapter VI although he mentions the differing dialects in Chapter I (Sakhong 2000). In this way it is implied that Hakha is the only “real” Chin language.  He explains that the “the Chin language” was adopted all over the Chin Hills in its missionary schools.  In this way, explains Sakhong, the village chiefs attended school as did their children and, “Thus, the conversion of this new generation of the ruling class spearheaded not only church growth after the war but a change in society as well.”  Sakhong continues, “…the emergence of a Chin elite based on professional soldiers and teacher-cum-preachers also contributed in many way and means for church growth…” (Sakhong 2000:232).  Thus Sakhong tries to argue that Hakha was not only the first Chin to convert, but that they were the elite in the Chin Hills.  After his statements, he continues to suggest that only after the Hakha converted, established schools employing “the Chin language” did the Church expand into Tedim.  In fact, Tedim had been converted first and/or simultaneously.  Tedim was also first to indiginize  locals to teach and preach (Johnson 1988).  Hence, Sakhong grossly misrepresents history by implying and outright stating that the Hakha are superior.  In fact, Johnson recalls, “It was a mistake to have opened the mission station at Haka. Teddim would have been a better site.  This view was expressed gently while Arthur Carson lived, but after his death East[4] became much more blunt in saying that Teddim would have been a better choice and that American Baptist Missionary Union ought to open a second station at Teddim and take advantage of the northern openness to change and conversion” (Johnson 1988:239).  Still, Sakhong continues to argue that Hakha was the center of conversion.  Sakhong contends that it was Laura Carson who did not wish to open a second station in Tedim.  According to Sakhong she said that all missionaries should, “…stay in Hakha, the center of Chinram” (Sakhong 2000:234).
 Claiming that Hakha was the capital of conversion is important to Sakhong, because according to Sakhong (2000), the concept of power and its legitimacy is sacred.  That is, the Chin believed that when one settles in a place that is occupied by benevolent spirits and if those spirits allows a person to take on political power, it is because the spirits mandated it so.  The person taking on political power was usually a patriarch chief who belonged to a specific clan and was thus, “ritually clean.”  Sakhong takes this argument further by contending that there are aristocrat clans that, “…their power was a mandate from the guardian god Khua-hrum” (Sakhong 2000:103).  And almost all of the aristocrats were usually the direct descendents of the founder of a particular clan or a particular settlement.  One specific family, the Za Thang family who originated in Hakha was said to rule all of the central part of the Chin Hills.  Sakhong states, “Haka, where the ruling chief lived, became the principal village…and all its satellite communities became the… community of Haka.” (Sakhong 2000:103)  “According to tradition,” writes Sakhong, “…the Za Thang family of Hakha was blessed with an abundant life.  They increased in numbers and performed many successful rituals.  They ruled the villages and communities, which covers the present Chin State of Burma.  That is, Sakhong once again marginalizes that Tedim and Falam.  Interestingly he uses previous notions of spirits and their blessing a specific family, the Za Thangs and a specific settlement, Hakha.  Although he does not implicitly state is as such, but this is a case of syncretism at its best.  Certain families are accepted by spirits, hence they are special and ought to be appreciated and trusted.  Also, it is suggested, as is in traditional religions that blessings run along kinship lines.  Thus, families are chosen.  He implies this to be true for Christians as well and in his theological dissertation infers that the Chin (or Hakha) were chosen by God.  Furthermore, Sakhong literally, puts Hakha in the center of Chin State, psychologically as well as literally.  Given the map of Chin State, this is again a gross misrepresentation.[5]  Below is a map of Chin State taken from Sakhong’s own text.  It appears that they “dots” indicating the cities were hand-drawn onto the map.  Still,  without doubt, Hakha is not in the center of Northern Chin State.

 B. Using Christianity on the World Stage
To date, those in the business of Chin politics tend to stem from the Hakha region.  Thus, they are the elite and most are in exile living all over the world.  These leaders also use Christianity as a means of representing the Chin community both inside and outside of Burma.  Conversion and political gain are very much interdependent in terms of the Chin.  There are dozens of non-governmental organizations campaigning for Chin Human Rights, Chin Refugee Rights, Chin Women’s Rights and so on.  Hakha Chin almost exclusively lead these organizations. Dr. Lian Hmung Sakhong wears  “several hats as he himself acknowledges.”[6]  He is general secretary and leading member in the following organizations.
 Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC), [7] United Nationalities League for Democracy (UNLD),[8] Chin National League for Democracy (CNLD),[9] Chin National Council (CNC),[10] Federal Constitution Drafting and Coordinating Committee (FCDCC),[11] National Reconciliation Program (NRP)[12] and the Chin Forum whose task is to create draft Constitutions for the future independent Chinland.[13]
 After Sakhong resigned from the Chin Forum which had been drafting versions of the future Chinland Constitution for the past decade, he initiated a new non-governmental organization (NGO), the Federal Constitution Drafting and Coordinating Committee (FCDCC).  I argue that he did so in order to take over the drafting of the Constitution, and thus receive funding, from the National Endowment for Democracy which is currently funding the Chin Forum for their constitution efforts.
 The Hakha have also sought funding from Christian aid organizations, such as the Christian Solidarity Worldwide (CSW),[14] an international organization headquarted in London and supported by The Baroness Cox of Queensbury in the British House of Lords.  CSWs two primary on-going projects are Burma and Nepal.  The advocate for Burma is Benedict Rogers.  Rogers is the author of A Land Without Evil: Stopping the Genocide of Burma’s Karen People  and  Carrying the Cross: The military regime’s campaign of restriction, discrimination and persecution against Christians in Burma.  His most recent project is the plight of the Chin.  In fact, CSW is recommending that the Department for International Development in the UK (DFID)[15] budget for Burma increase from 8 – 16 British pounds annually.[16]  CSW, with Benedict Rogers as the advocate for the Chin, took Chin, i.e. mostly Hakha activists[17] around Europe and North America last year to meet members of Parliament in London, members of Parliament in Berlin, to speak at the U.N. in Washington D.C. and Government officials in Canada. Around this time (June 2007), Sakhong, representing the Ethnic National Council managed to get an audience with the United State’s first lady, Laura Bush where he represented the whole of the “Chin.”   Members of the Chin Forum, for example, were unaware of his visit to the White House.[18]
 Christianity has opened the doors for the Hakha to appeal to a world audience on the behalf of their “Christian” rights.  The role of being a persecuted religious group has gained the Chin worldwide attention, such as reports in the following publications: BBC Asia,[19] Religion and Ethics: News Weekly,[20] Christian Today,[21] Christian Freedom International, [22] Global Security,[23] and Christian Persecution Info – Asia.[24]

References : -
[1] Max Weber used Heilbesitz in this way,  “das Anliegen des Galvinismus, den Heilbesitz, die Gottesgemeinschaft durch Christus, durch eine entsprechende Erneuerung des Lebens zu seiner  Auswirkung kommen zu lassen.”  The English translation is as follows, “the concern of galvinism, to effect the heilbesitz, the association with god, by respective reformation of life.”
[2] Most of these biographies are written in differing Chin dialects and were not read by this author. For a brief history of his life see Chin Khua Khai’s article, “Legacy of Hua Lian Kham (1944-1995): A Revivalist, Equipper, and Transformer for the Zomi-Chin people of Myanmar” in Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 4/1, (2001) p. 99-107
[3] The Sizang and Kamhau are part of the Tedim area
[4] Dr. East established a medical mission in Hakha when the Carson’s “failed” to convert.  East did manage to convert through his medical mission.
[5] As mentioned in the introduction, this paper is concerned with Northern Chin State which is comprised of three major subdivisions: Tedim, Falam and Hakha.  The map illustrate the location of these three divisions and clearly Hakha is not in the center of Northern Chin State
[7] See:
[8] See:
[9] See:
[10] See:
[11] See:
[12] See:
[13] See:
[14] for more information see:
[15] for funding schemes see: (visited August 3, 2007)
[17] I was also a member of this delegation and only one of the two non-Hakha Chin
[18] Chin Forum members did not know of this visit.  Based on personal communication with Salai Kipp Kho Lian (July 7, 2007)